Click here to download the template.

example of costing

Alternatively, you may be able to renegotiate your current rent if you are able to show your landlord that you have been successful in increasing sales and revenue. Budgeting for equipment can be difficult as it’s often hard to predict exactly how much equipment you’ll need. However, there are a few ways to save money on equipment for startup businesses. One option is to lease or rent equipment instead of buying it outright. Another option is to buy used or refurbished equipment instead of new.

  • While the definition of cost of sales is straightforward to understand, the calculation can be complex depending on your products.
  • We provide 11 examples of public playground designs at various costs (including delivery and installation).
  • The corresponding quantity where the average total cost is at its minimum level.
  • It is often focused on perceived value, rather than the actual value of the product or the costs involved in making them.
  • Investing in technology also allows you to keep up with trends and stay competitive in an increasingly digital world.

Therefore, the average cost for the production of 1500 chocolate bars is $2.33. This demonstrates average cost decreasing as the fixed costs are spread bookkeeping for startups between more output. Variable costs are important because they provide a way to track the relationship between production volume and expenses.

What should I include in a cost of sales calculation?

The next step is to estimate the amount of his own time to be dedicated to the project and that of any other co-investigators. He follows the guide to estimating staff time to help him do this. He works out that his average working week equates to roughly 40 hours per week. This excludes travel to/from work and a daily 45min break for lunch. The value of units transferred to Process 2 is a balancing figure. Abnormal gain example

There is a heat wave and staff have eaten less chocolate.

  • Accounting costs will include your variable and fixed costs you have to pay.
  • For most small businesses, cost of sales are the same as direct costs.
  • The sunk cost fallacy occurs when we feel that we have invested too much to quit.
  • While labour costs are typically easy to figure out, other costs can catch out beginners.

Since the total fixed cost is fixed, the more you produce, the average fixed cost per unit will decrease further. This is the reason why we have a falling average fixed cost curve. The surprising aspect is the average total cost, which is first decreasing and then increasing as the quantity rises. It is important to distinguish between the total cost and the average total cost since the former always increases with additional quantity.

Our free monthly newsletter brings you business advice, local support, news and events

Estimates are critical to project professionals; vital when making informed decisions about projects across the different stages of the entire project life cycle to ensure successful project delivery. Cost control information is fundamental to the lessons learned process, as it can provide a database of actual costs against activities and work packages that be used to inform future projects. Cost planning and control is the estimation of costs, the setting of an agreed budget, and management of actual and forecast costs against that budget.

  • In other words, fixed costs equal the required investment you need to make to start producing.
  • This time, TERRA T-shirts bought 250 t-shirts for £5 in January, then another 250 t-shirts for the inflated price of £7 in February.
  • Additionally, consider other costs such as training and development programs to ensure your staff have the skills and knowledge needed for success.
  • These could be a
    proportion of salaries of core staff such as administrators.
  • Mr Bean allows the staff to eat 5% of the chocolate as they work on Process 1.
  • During periods of inflation, you will sell your items that came at a higher cost first.

The relationship between the average total cost curve and marginal cost curve is illustrated in Figure 2 below. It is generally used in manufacturing businesses, where it helps to track actual production costs and compare them to the costs that were originally expected. It’s called variance analysis, the difference between standard and actual numbers. If a company wants to reduce costs, it can use cost accounting data to identify areas where spending can be reduced. Or, if a company wants to increase profits, it might use cost accounting data to find ways to increase revenue or decrease costs. Managers use cost accounting to make decisions about pricing, product mix, and investment strategies.

AccountingWEB Events

In rational decision-making, sunk costs should not play a role in our future actions because we can never get back the money, time, or energy we have invested – regardless of the outcome. The sunk cost fallacy leads people to believe that past investments (i.e., sunk costs) justify further investments and commitments. They believe this because the resources already invested will be lost. The sunk cost fallacy occurs when we feel that we have invested too much to quit. This psychological trap causes us to stick with a plan even if it no longer serves us and the costs clearly outweigh the benefits.

What is costing in your own words?

(kɒstɪŋ , US kɔːst- ) Word forms: plural costings. variable noun. A costing is an estimate of all the costs involved in a project or a business venture.

Cost planning is an essential part of the project management process. Project managers need to understand where costs fall in their schedule to manage demand for resources. Cost-plus pricing, also known as markup pricing, simply comprises adding a fixed percentage to the cost of making a product to arrive at its final selling price. This percentage is added on top of whatever price you would need to break even on a single unit or product.

Many larger, more established firms will even have hired cost analysts who monitor and analyse the business’ fixed and variable costs. While fixed costs cover regular payments such as rent or mortgage payments, utilities, salaries, and insurance, you can expect variable costs to cover changeable payments. These include things like the price of raw materials, shipping costs, piece rate labour, and commissions. Similarly, at a quantity level of 10, we can observe that despite the average fixed cost ($5.4) being minimized, the variable cost ($14) has increased as a result of diminishing returns. This results in a higher average total cost($19.4), which shows that the efficient production quantity is lower than 10. Thus, if we add the average fixed cost and average variable cost, we should find the average total cost.

example of costing

This means that on average, it costs the company $10 to produce each widget. For questions that include WIP, we need to calculate equivalent units. In an exam, use the first in first out (FIFO) method if the percentage completion of each element of opening WIP is given. Use the weighted average (WA) method if the value of each element of opening WIP is given.

Cybersecurity Business Leading the Charge Against Business Threats

The APM Learning portal is an online resource which provides members with access to digital guides, modules and other digital learning resources as part of the membership benefit. The maximum payment period on purchases is 54 calendar days and is obtained only if you spend on the first day of the new statement period and repay the balance in full on the due date. If you’d prefer a Card with no annual fee, rewards or other features, an alternative option is available – the Business Basic Card. Here the focus is to use your competitors’ prices as a benchmark for setting your own. For example, you could set your prices slightly below your competition, the same as your competition or slightly above. If you operate in a saturated market, this strategy can be useful since small price differences can be a deciding factor for customers.

When compared to other casinos’ offerings, Yabby Casino’s bonus is both more exciting and more manageable in terms of wagering requirements. The wide variety of games available, the abundance of customer-focused promos, and the convenience of the mobile app all contribute to Yabby Casino’s success in the Australian market. There are dozens of games in the live section, so there’s something for everyone. 

In Australia, Yabby is a household name thanks to its extensive betting grids on casino games. The website also has a casino with a wide variety of slot machines, games, bonus offers, and promotional offers to suit every player’s preferences. But can we expect it to fulfill our hopes? Find out in this in-depth analysis of the Yabby casino.

Card games available

At Yabby Casino, blackjack is by far the most played of the card games available. More than 40 games are played in real-time, and there are more than 20 games available on the regular area of the site. In conclusion, the premium offer is fantastic for gamers of all skill levels due to its extensive personalization choices and high betting limits. Players enjoy a variety of blackjack variants, including Yabby Australian Blackjack, Lightning Blackjack, Speed Blackjack, and a select number of VIP-only tables. 

Yabby’s live casino has over a hundred different games, from blackjack to roulette, all dealt with by real people. There are a number of ways to place bets ranging from fifty cents to a thousand dollars. In front of you is one of the best online live casinos, ready to provide you with a full and exciting gaming experience.

Casino bonus up to $150 and 375 free spins

The $150 welcome offer is available to all new players at Yabby Casino. The entire list of live games that are ineligible for the welcome bonus at Yabby Casino, including first-person roulette and Lightning Dice, can be seen on the operator’s website. Wagers must be made within 7 days after the initial bet on the site to qualify for the bonus credit. 

The Book of Dead slot machine is where you may use your 375 free spins from the Yabby casino offer. Within 3 days after account creation, you must register and activate the bonus by visiting the “My Bonus” area. The Yabby casino bonus is much like any other offer tailored to casinos serving the AAMS (ADM) market in that it comes with its own set of requirements. A quick rundown of the key ones follows.

Variety of Casino Games

Betsoft, 12, Gameart, soft, Playson, Iron Dog Studio, and NetEnt are just a few of the studios showcasing their slots on Yabby. Multi-reel, multi-line, scatter- and wild-triggered bonus games, free spins, win multipliers, and progressive jackpots are all available in these games.

Games like Event Horizon, Fruits’n’Stars, Cosmic Crystals, The Best Witch, Draculas Family, Fairytale Legends: Hansel & Gretel, The Elements, Twinspin, King of Slots, Aloha Cluster Pays, Guns ‘. N’ Roses and Fantasy Master of Mystery are among the most played in this category. Video poker (Double Joker Poker, Jacks or Better, Wild Sevens, Joker Poker, Doubles. ), blackjack (Single Deck Blackjack, Blackjack Pro 3, Red Queen Blackjack, Blackjack Bonus), and roulette (European Roulette, French Roulette, European Roulette 3D, Small Stakes European Roulette, Bonus Roulette, Advanced Roulette, Roulette 3D) are also available.

Yabby Casino

Confidential Data

Yabby Casino has cutting-edge SSL encryption technology, making it a safe and reliable online gambling destination. Information sent by users is sent over servers with high levels of security. More than a million Europeans are currently using the Yabby website, which is owned by SQS605 Malta LTD. To further guarantee the safety of its users, the portal keeps track of every account activity for a full decade. The information is obviously safe against hacking and phishing efforts. To do business across all channels in Aust, including online, Yabby Casino holds the standard AAMS (ADM) license No. 11272 from the Customs and Monopolies Agency.

A copy of the identity document needed to activate the account and withdraw winnings must be sent following registration. In the absence of this verification, which is mandated by law, the account will be canceled 30 days from now.



Do you want to join an Australian online casino? The good news is that Lucky Draw Casino Online is a legitimate alternative that many gamers choose. In this article, we’ll go over the many reasons why Australians recommend Lucky Draw Casino Online and why you can trust them. We’ll also discuss some of their characteristics so that you may make a well-informed choice. Read on if you’re interested in finding out why Lucky Draw Casino Online is a reliable destination for Australians who like gambling online.

Registration At Lucky Draw Casino

New players must register as users. The registration button is prominently displayed in the top corner of the page, and the registration form is immediately displayed and ready to fill out on the first page. Providing an email address and a new password is the first step in the process. Simply verify your email to activate your account and play immediately.

Don’t forget to include the proper casino identification when sending in your completed form. The procedure is quick and easy, and the casino’s support staff is available around the clock should any issues arise.


Lucky Draw Casino welcomes new players with a 100% bonus on their first deposit up to $750 and the chance for 170 free spins with no deposit required. The next three deposits also qualify for bonuses. This casino provides more than just a welcome bonus, with cashback, free spins, and reload bonuses all up for grabs.

The VIP Club at Lucky Draw Casino provides exclusive perks to the casino’s most significant patrons. Those that spend a lot of time at the slot machines tend to rise through the club’s ranks.

Australian Lucky Draw Casino

Game Selection

Lucky Draw Casino offers a wide variety of entertainment options outside only their core games, such as a weekly lottery, a variety of gaming tournaments, and a live casino. Games from dozens of developers, including Yggdrasil, Quickspin, Thunderkick, Wazdan, and Habanero, are available at the casino.

The library of games is grouped into several categories, such as fresh additions, slots, jackpots, live casinos, table games, downloadable bonuses, and cryptocurrency games. You may sort your favorites by service, or you can use the site’s convenient search bar to look for a specific title.

You may also enjoy a variety of card and table games, not to mention some great game shows, at Lucky Draw Casino’s live casino.

There are weekly lotteries and tournaments for players at the casino once a month. They provide new and interesting twists to the game.

Lucky Draw Casino Payment Options

Credit cards, digital currency wallets, and wire transfers are just some of the many accepted payment options. The pre-paid payment card known as Paysafecard may also be used to make deposits. The funds on a Paysafecard may be spent everywhere Visa or Mastercard are accepted, including online casinos.

Customers may avoid entering their financial information when using a Paysafecard to fund their accounts. You may withdraw the whole balance from your card, or any amount up to your card’s limit. One drawback of this technique is that withdrawals cannot be processed via it; you will need to choose a different method for withdrawals.

Deposit And Withdrawal

The casino accepts several various deposit and withdrawal methods, but it has consistent limits for each. All transactions, whether deposits or withdrawals, must be a minimum of $20 and cannot exceed $4000 in total. Deposits are handled promptly, but withdrawals might take up to four days. Credit card processing takes the longest.

Lucky Draw Casino has provided a helpful table detailing all of the available banking choices for its patrons to examine side by side. Money transfers are free of charge at the casino.

Lucky Draw Casino Mobile

In the future, mobile casinos will be standard, and Lucky Draw Casino is no exception. You may take it with you and play it on your mobile device whenever you choose. You may play right in your mobile device’s browser without installing any additional software. You may play all of the same games and join all of the same competitions. A mobile casino is a portable entertainment option that can be used to stave off boredom wherever you go.

Responsible Gambling

Gambling addiction is a serious problem that is gradually developing. It would be good if every player planned a game budget, took into account the time he spends on the game, and remembered to approach gambling only as entertainment, not as a way to make money. At Lucky Draw Casino, a player can set deposit, loss, bet, and time limits on his or her account.

Do you value playing at a reliable online casino? The best place to be is at Bizzo online casino. In 2023, you don’t even have to leave your house to experience the thrills of gambling thanks to Bizzo Casino, Australia’s best real-money online casino. With such a great selection of games, bonuses and promotions, speedy payouts, and friendly support staff, it’s no wonder that the site continues to grow in popularity daily. The playing action at Bizzo Casino Online is unparalleled.

Bizzo Casino: Slots

Numerous well-known developers have contributed games for inclusion in the So, you may enjoy such hits as Starburst, Divine Fortune, Gonzo’s Quest, Fire & Ice, Jack & the Beanstalk, Thunderstruck II, Jack & the Beanstalk, Immortal Romance, and Treasure Island, among many more, developed by Microgaming, NetEnt, Quickspin, Thunderkick, and EGT. This is but a sample of the many slot machines at your disposal.

The search function and categorization are very convenient. This allows you to browse games with bonuses and free spins or slots with the theme of “Movies and TV” or “Las Vegas”. In addition, there are about 40 games with jackpots and progressive jackpots where millions in winnings are possible. These include Mega Moolah, Mega Fortune, Major Millions, Caribbean Treasure, and Cleopatra.

Classic Games

French Roulette, European Roulette, and American Roulette are all examples of traditional table games, and there are many intriguing variations on these themes, such as Bonus Roulette and 3D Roulette. Joker Poker, Tens or Better, Poker Pursuit, Deuces Wild, and Casino Hold’em are just a few of the more than 50 variations of video poker available. Classic, VIP, Reno, 3D, and Atlantic City Blackjack are just some of the variants available. Games including punto banco, keno, and craps are also available.

Live Casino

For even more variety and an atmospheric atmosphere with real dealers and croupiers, you can simply visit Bizzo Live Casino. It offers French Roulette, VIP Roulette, Immersive Roulette, and Bizzo Roulette, as well as Blackjack, Baccarat, Casino Hold’em, Three Card Poker, and Caribbean Stud.

At Bizzo Casino, you can also try and test all the games for play money, except for the live casino. Gambling is easy and no download is required with Instant Play right in your browser.

Bizzo Casino Deposits And Withdrawals

Bizzo Casino works with payment processor Websecurity Transactions to secure all transfers. A 128-bit SSL certificate is also used to encrypt data transfers and payment information.

Credit cards from Visa and MasterCard, as well as e-wallets like PayPal, Neteller, and Skrill, are accepted at Bizzo Casino for Australian players. In addition to EPS/Giropay and conventional bank transfers, you may now pay using a credit card or a Paysafecard. Withdrawals start at $20 and deposits at $10. Most trades don’t cost anything. Within one to five business days, your withdrawal will be completed.

Bizzo Casino Bonus Program

New players at Bizzo Casino Australia are eligible for a generous bonus. Your first investment is eligible for a 100% bonus of up to $777. So, you may get a free credit bonus of 100%, up to $777. In addition, if you lose at least $10 playing live casino games, you may claim a payback bonus. The minimum deposit to qualify for the bonus is $10, and you must rollover your funds 30 times before withdrawing any winnings.

Existing players at Bizzo Casino VIP club have the chance to spin the Wheel of Fortune for daily bonus prizes and other rewards. Free credit for inviting a friend, frequent campaigns and tournaments, cash and bonus giveaways, and non-monetary prise drawings are also available.

Bizzo Casino Bonus Program

Bizzo Casino Review: Responsible Gaming

At Bizzo Casino Online, we take responsible gaming seriously. Our player-centric approach to our gaming experience is based on creating a safe and secure environment for players. We strive to provide a space where everyone can enjoy the fun and excitement of gambling in a responsible manner.

ETHANOL DRIVEN VEHICLEThe Ethanol Driven Vehicle Project (EDVP) was initiated in 2006 after a cabinet directive in 2004 that Malawi should explore other sources of fuel for vehicles with the overall objective of contributing to economic development by promoting use of ethanol as an alternative energy source in vehicles. The project was first implemented by the then Department of Science and Technology under the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and from July 2010 the project was taken over by the National Commission for Science and Technology (NCST). The project was implemented in collaboration with Lilongwe Technical College, Ethanol Company Limited, Malawi Energy Regulatory Authority, Plant and Vehicle Hire Organisation and Malawi Bureau of Standards. PVHO donated an old Mitsubishi Pajero to the project; ETHCO imported a flexi vehicle (Ford Ecosport) and the project bought three Nissan Tiidas.

By promoting use of ethanol as an alternative energy source in motor vehicles in Malawi, the research findings were aimed at contributing to energy self-sufficiency, national economic development and environmental protection. The use of locally produced ethanol could replace a certain proportion of petrol imported resulting in savings in foreign exchange and reduce the reliance on imported petroleum fuel. Ethanol produced from sugarcane molasses is classified as a renewable form of energy. The use of ethanol reduces emissions of greenhouse gases, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter and ethanol is generally less toxic to handle than petroleum fuels.

Ethanol use as vehicle fuel as compared to petrol use is seen to have a net positive benefit/ cost impact on the economy of the ethanolcountry. Ethanol use positively contribute to fuel price stability, reduce vehicle running costs, reduce foreign exchange requirements, help address challenges faced by the country due to reliance on imported fuels, growth of agriculture sector and poverty alleviation. Ethanol use negatively contributes to levies collected by Government and does not affect the cost of servicing petrol vehicles, transport costs and storage infrastructure. Ethanol use would therefore contribute to the overall economic development of the country through generation of employment, growth to the agriculture sector, saving of foreign exchange and reducing the reliance of imported petroleum fuels amongst others.

Total ethanol production for the country is 18 million litres per year.This quantity meetsthe current demand of ethanol use as vehicle fuel at a blending ratio of 10% ethanol and 90% petrol. This quantity is however inadequate to meet future ethanol requirements due to increased blending of ethanol with petrol, increased vehicle population and use flexi vehicles.

Existing structures that are used for storage, handling, transporting and marketing of petroleum products (petrol and diesel fuels) and petrol/ ethanol blends are capable of being used for storage, handling, transporting and marketing of increased ethanol/ petrol blends and pure ethanol

NCSTorganizes a journalists sensitization workshop at Livingstonia Beach Hotel

The National Commission for Science and Technology in conjunction with International Service for the Acquisition of Agribiotech Applications (ISAAA) and the Programme for Biosafety Systems (PBS) organized a journalists’ sensitization workshop which took place at the Livingstonia Beach Hotel in Salima on 20th and 21st November.

The workshop brought along 13 journalists from the main media houses of Malawi and it had the following objectives;

  •  Introduce participants to the basics of biotechnology and biosafety
  • Familiarize participants with the role of Malawi institutions in research and regulation of GMOs
  • Create awareness about the global, regional and national status of GMOs
  • Introduce participants to principles of effective biosafety communication
  • Equip participants with skills for identification of biosafety concerns, packaging and publishing of balanced stories on biotechnology


Practical Session: DNA extraction to understand how genetic engineering ensues

Facilitators in the workshop were scientists and researchers drawn from the Department of Agriculture Research Services, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, the institution that is carrying out the Confined Field Trials for Bt Cotton and communication experts including Dr Margaret Karembu from ISAAA. Among the facilitators also was the Chairperson of the Cotton Development Trust who is also one of the farmers to have gone to Burkina Faso to witness the benefits of growing Bt Cotton there.
In his speech opening the workshop, the Director General of NCST Mr. Anthony Muyepa Phiri stressed on the importance and timeliness of this workshop saying there has been a lot of misinformation and fear mongering on GM crops and he believed this has been due to the lack of correct information on the part of the media and he said he was sure that at the end of those two days the right information will be inculcated to the media and that the issues of misreporting this technology will be a thing of the past.
The workshop approach was participatory and interactive with presentations, group works, practical sessions and the participants also had chance to conduct a DNA extraction so as to understand how genetic engineering ensues. The practical sessions allowed the participants to develop stories and by the end of the meeting the groups had frameworks of feasible stories.
The presentations were in three categories namely Biotechnology, biosafety and effective biotechnology and biosafety communication.

Participatory and interactive group works

Participatory and interactive group works

It is hoped that having done this sensitization workshop, the misinformation that has been common place when reporting issues to do with biotech crops will no longer be an issue.

The NCST has been implementing the Programme for Biosafety Systems (PBS). This is a programme that is promoting the adoption and use of biotechnology.

To enhance Malawi’s future development and economic growth, the National Commission for Science and Technology is promoting biotechnology as one of the tools to address poverty, hunger and disease.
To guide development and use of modern biotechnology in the country, NCST has facilitated development of the necessary legal and policy instruments such as Biotechnology and Biosafety Policy, Genetically Modified Seed Import Procedure Manual, Trials Managers Manual, Inspectors Manual and Malawi Guidelines on Biotechnology.

In line with the policy, Government approved the first application for Bt-cotton Confined Field Trial at Bunda College of Agriculture in October 2011, making Malawi among the very few countries in Africa and the world to conduct Confined Field Trials.

The government of Malawi signed the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in May 2000 and ratified it in 2009.
In line with the requirements of the Protocol, the Malawian Parliament enacted the Biosafety Act in October
2002, which is administered by the Minister responsible for Environmental Affairs. The Act provides for an
institutional framework for its operationalization consisting of the following;
National Biosafety Regulatory Committee
Biosafety Registrar

A national biotechnology and biosafety policy was approved by the Malawi Cabinet on 26th June 2008.

Among provisions in the Malawi biotechnology and biosafety policy is the delineation of roles and
responsibilities at government level as well as at the R&D and other service delivery institutional levels. In
the policy, the mandate for promoting and developing biotechnology in Malawi is vested in the National
Commission for Science and Technology (NCST). The NCST hosts the National Biotechnology Committee,
which is responsible for promoting biotechnology, public awareness and coordination of biotechnology
research and development. On the other hand, the Department of Environmental Affairs (EAD) is
responsible for regulation of biotechnology, which entails receiving and reviewing applications for
activities with genetically modified organisms and issuing licenses or permits. The EAD hosts the National
Biosafety Regulatory Committee (NBRC). In addition, there is a third set of public institutions that are
responsible for providing biosafety regulatory and enforcement services in the country. The mandate of
these institutions is provided through regulatory provisions included in the various Acts that established
them. These include: the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security; Ministry of Industry and Trade;
Ministry of Health; Malawi Bureau of Standards; Pharmacy and Medicines Board; Pesticides Control Board;
Seed Services Unit; Plant Protection Unit; Ministry of Labour; Fisheries Department; Forestry Department;
National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens of Malawi; Department of National Parks and Wildlife; Ministry of
Local Government; Ministry of Women and Child Welfare; and Malawi Investment Promotion Agency.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security has also established its institutional biosafety committee
(IBC) known as the Agricultural Biotechnology and Biosafety Committee (ABBC) which is technically
and financially supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security.

Commencement of Insect-Resistant Cotton CFT in Malawi
In 2009, Bunda College of Agriculture of the University of Malawi through Professor Moses Kwapata
submitted applications for confined field trials of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant cotton. The two
applications for confined field trials (CFTs) for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) with the events MON88913
(herbicide tolerant) and MON15985 (insect resistant) were submitted according to the provisions of the
Malawi Biosafety Act #13 of 2002 and Biosafety Regulations, 2007, and the Malawi Biotechnology
Guidelines, 2009; to the National Biosafety Regulatory Committee (NBRC) through the Biosafety Registrar.
In January 4, 2013, Malawi commenced CFT for cotton at Bunda College.

Identified Biosafety Needs and Gaps:
Areas that require ABNE intervention are:
Support to the NBRC in biosafety communication using the ABNE Biosafety Communication Manual.

Training of members of the Agricultural Biotechnology and Biosafety Committee (ABBC) as an agricultural technical group of experts to serve as a team of scientific safety reviewers and strengthen their capacity in risk assessments

Training of the Biosafety Registrar, institutional biosafety committee members and members of the NBRC for their roles and responsibilities as biosafety regulators

Training of inspectors for monitoring and compliance
Facilitating attendance of the Biosafety Registrar and members of the NBRC in a functional biosafety committee meeting of another country.